This Impact Case Study demonstrates how original research undertaken at the University of Portsmouth has directly benefited the National Health Service (NHS) and Ministry of Defence (MOD) research ethics and governance processes. The work was highlighted in the House of Commons Science and Technology Select Committee’s 2018 report on Research Transparency. It was the basis for the Health Research Authority’s ‘Make it Public’ Transparency Strategy, and a major revision of the MOD Joint Service Publication 536 (JSP536) governing defence human participant research. Updated policies have led to measurable improvements in the transparency of research and efficiency of the research approvals process, specifically cutting average review times by one third within the MOD. It has also enabled the MOD to comply with clinical trial regulations, directly impacting researchers and research participants across a wide range of medical and military related topics, and covering many millions of research investment.