A comprehensive review of friction stir techniques in structural materials and alloys: challenges and trends

D. A. P. Prabhakar, Arun Kumar Shettigar, Mervin A. Herbert, Manjunath Patel G C, Danil Yurievich Pimenov, Khaled Giasin, Chander Prakash

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Friction-stir techniques are the potential alternative to fusion-based systems for processing and welding metallic alloys and other materials. This review explores the advantages, applications, limitations, and future directions of seven friction-based techniques namely, Additive Friction Stir Deposition (AFSD), Friction Stir Additive Manufacturing (FSAM), Friction Stir Welding (FSW), Friction Stir Processing (FSP), Friction Surfacing (FS), Friction Stir Spot Welding (FSSW), and Friction Stir Lap Welding (FSLW). The basic underlying principle of these processes uses friction as a thermal energy source to weld/process/deposit materials. The common control parameters of all friction stir processing techniques are axial force, rotational speed, and weld or traverse speed. In addition, tool profiles and tool dimensions are known to influence the weld quality. The tool's rotational speed and axial force generate friction between the workpiece and tool material interface, which could plasticize the material. The additive powder bed friction stir process (APBFSP) is another new solid-state manufacturing technique that focus on fabricating the polymer matrix nanocomposites (PNC). In this, a hollow tool like AFSD and the fundamental principle of FSP are combined. The said parameters affect the quantity of material getting deposited/welded. However, weld speed/traverse speed alters the weld quality, and higher traverse speed results in porosity and voids in the welded/deposited/processed region. The only difference between AFSD and other friction stir techniques (FSTs) is that in the AFSD technique, the hollow rotating tool comprises two protrusions with different tool profiles (cylindrical, threaded cylindrical, and tapered cylindrical, square) used. Threaded cylindrical profile and tool steel as the tool material is the most commonly employed in FSTs. Apart from that, tungsten carbide is preferred for hard materials. The working principles and process parameters of FSTs that affect the part quality are discussed in detail. The above review gives the reader an understanding of the domain of FSTs that can be researched further. A summary of some of the potential research works with objectives, process parameters, and outcomes is highlighted. This will provide the readers with an overview of the work carried out by researchers across the globe. Finally, the potential research gaps for future directions to be explored soon across the globe are outlined.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3025-3060
Number of pages36
JournalJournal of Materials Research and Technology
Early online date19 Aug 2022
Publication statusPublished - 2 Sept 2022


  • friction stir techniques
  • friction stir welding
  • process parameters
  • friction stir processing
  • additive friction stir deposition
  • friction surfacing


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