A cost comparison of potable water softening technologies

S. W. Brett, Mark Gaterell, G. K. Morse, J. N. Lester

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Advances in membrane technology have yielded ultra low pressure reverse osmosis (ULPRO) systems as a potential water softening process. In order to establish the relative economic performance of such systems, they are compared directly with a number of alternative softening techniques through two case studies based on groundwater sites. Results suggest that although RO systems may not be the most cost effective for unblended peak load operation, they are likely to out perform alternative techniques for base load operation, and for base and peak load operations where high blending ratios are possible.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1021-1031
Number of pages11
JournalEnvironmental Technology
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 1999


  • reverse osmosis
  • economic appraisal
  • water softening


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