A formal model and analysis of an IoT protocol

Benjamin Yowell Yousif Aziz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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We present a formal model of the MQ Telemetry Transport version 3.1 protocol based on a timed message-passing process algebra. We explain the modelling choices that we made, including pointing out ambiguities in the original protocol specification, and we carry out a static analysis of the formal protocol model, which is based on an approximation of a name-substitution semantics for algebra. The analysis reveals that the protocol behaves correctly as specified against the first two quality of service modes of operation providing at most once and at least once delivery semantics to the subscribers. However, we find that the third and highest quality of service semantics is prone to error and at best ambiguous in certain aspects of its specification. Finally, we suggest an enhancement of this level of QoS for the protocol.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)49-57
JournalAd Hoc Networks
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2016


  • Formal verification
  • IoT
  • MQTT


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