Adipose tissue macrophages develop from bone marrow–independent progenitors in Xenopus laevis and mouse

Syed F. Hassnain Waqas, Anna Noble, Anh C. Hoang, Grace Ampem, Manuela Popp, Sarah Strauß, Matthew Guille, Tamás Röszer

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ATMs have a metabolic impact in mammals as they contribute to metabolically harmful AT inflammation. The control of the ATM number may have therapeutic potential; however, information on ATM ontogeny is scarce. Whereas it is thought that ATMs develop from circulating monocytes, various tissue-resident Mϕs are capable of self-renewal and develop from BM-independent progenitors without a monocyte intermediate. Here, we show that amphibian AT contains self-renewing ATMs that populate the AT before the establishment of BM hematopoiesis. Xenopus ATMs develop from progenitors of aVBI. In the mouse, a significant amount of ATM develops from the yolk sac, the mammalian equivalent of aVBI. In summary, this study provides evidence for a prenatal origin of ATMs and shows that the study of amphibian ATMs can enhance the understanding of the role of the prenatal environment in ATM development.
Original languageEnglish
Article numberjlb.1A0317-082RR
Pages (from-to)845-855
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Leukocyte Biology
Issue number3
Early online date22 Jun 2017
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2017


  • fat body
  • yolk sac macrophages
  • CX3CR1
  • lurp
  • neuropeptide FF


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