All aboard for "SAM": a new anticipatory conceptual model for passenger Preconsumption in Cruise Tourism

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    Anticipation in the cruise sector is nothing new, and passengers are most likely to have to wait for their trips after purchase. Anticipation theory has shown that levels of anticipation will initially be high after purchase then decrease, rising again before the event takes place. Extant research has considered anticipation but has not focused on changes in emotions in this anticipatory time phase. This study is particularly useful to cruise tour operators because of the lengthy booking periods in this sector compared to other holiday types. This research note considers anticipation theory and analyzes the impacts of anticipatory emotion with cruise passengers. It proposes a new Spiked Anticipation Model (SAM), which identifies how consumer anticipation can vary during the prejourney phase. SAM considers anticipatory emotions and time, and spikes are noted as the cruise anticipatory journey progresses. The research has also shown that there are a variety of both positive and negative anticipatory emotions that can be expressed during this stage. This investigation will extend academic understanding of anticipatory theory and provide cruise company managers with a clearer understanding of consumer emotions in this phase that will help them to identify which services and products their cruise passengers may require in this preconsumptive journey stage, thus potentially enhancing customer satisfaction and increasing revenues.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)243-251
    JournalTourism in Marine Environments
    Issue number4
    Publication statusPublished - 31 Dec 2018


    • Anticipation
    • Cruise
    • Emotion
    • Tourism


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