Almost-homogeneity of the universe in higher-order gravity

David R. Taylor*, Roy Maartens

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In the R+αR2 gravity theory, we show that if freely propagating massless particles have an almost isotropic distribution, then the spacetime is almost Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (frw). This extends the result proved recently in general relativity (α = 0), which is applicable to the microwave background after photon decoupling. The higher-order result is in principle applicable to a massless species that decouples in the early universe, such as a relic graviton background. Any future observations that show small anisotropies in such a background would imply that the geometry of the early universe were almost frw.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1309-1321
Number of pages13
JournalGeneral Relativity and Gravitation
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1995


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