Characterizing the population history of a species and identifying loci underlying local adaptation is crucial in functional ecology, evolutionary biology, conservation and agronomy. The constant improvement of high-throughput sequencing techniques has facilitated the production of whole genome data in a wide range of species. Population genomics now provides tools to better integrate selection into a historical framework, and take into account selection when reconstructing demographic history. However, this improvement has come with a profusion of analytical tools that can confuse and discourage users. Such confusion limits the amount of information effectively retrieved from complex genomic datasets, and impairs the diffusion of the most recent analytical tools into fields like conservation biology. It may also lead to redundancy among methods. To address these isssues, we propose an overview of more than 100 state-of-the-art methods that can deal with whole genome data. We summarise the strategies they use to infer demographic history and selection, and discuss some of their limitations. A website listing these methods is available at www.methodspopgen.com.
- population genomics
- whole-genome sequencing