Analysis and optimization of dimensional accuracy and porosity of high impact polystyrene material printed by FDM process: PSO, JAYA, RAO, and bald eagle search algorithms

Manjunath Patel Gowdru Chandrashekarappa*, Ganesh Ravi Chate, Vineeth Parashivamurthy, Balakrishnamurthy Sachin Kumar, Mohd Amaan Najeeb Bandukwala, Annan Kaisar, Khaled Giasin, Danil Yurievich Pimenov, Szymon Wojciechowski*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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Abstract

High impact polystyrene (HIPS) material is widely used for low-strength structural applications. To ensure proper function, dimensional accuracy and porosity are at the forefront of industrial relevance. The dimensional accuracy cylindricity error (CE) and porosity of printed parts are influenced mainly by the control variables (layer thickness, shell thickness, infill density, print speed of the fused deposition modeling (FDM) process). In this study, a central composite design (CCD) matrix was used to perform experiments and analyze the complete insight information of the process (control variables influence on CE and porosity of FDM parts). Shell thickness for CE and infill density for porosity were identified as the most significant factors. Layer thickness interaction with shell thickness, infill density (except for CE), and print speed were found to be significant for both outputs. The interaction factors, i.e., shell thickness and infill density, were insignificant (negligible effect) for both outputs. The models developed produced a better fit for regression with an R2 equal to 94.56% for CE, and 99.10% for porosity, respectively. Four algorithms (bald eagle search optimization (BES), particle swarm optimization (PSO), RAO-3, and JAYA) were applied to determine optimal FDM conditions while examining six case studies (sets of weights assigned for porosity and CE) focused on minimizing both CE and porosity. BES and RAO-3 algorithms determined optimal conditions (layer thickness: 0.22 mm; shell thickness: 2 mm; infill density: 100%; print speed: 30 mm/s) at a reduced computation time equal to 0.007 s, differing from JAYA and PSO, which resulted in an experimental CE of 0.1215 mm and 2.5% of porosity in printed parts. Consequently, BES and RAO-3 algorithms are efficient tools for the optimization of FDM parts.
Original languageEnglish
Article number7479
Number of pages21
JournalMaterials
Volume14
Issue number23
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 6 Dec 2021

Keywords

  • JAYA
  • high impact polystyrene
  • bald eagle search
  • fused deposition modelling
  • particle swarm optimization
  • cylindricity error
  • porosity

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