Analysis of microstructure and mechanical properties of bismuth-doped SAC305 lead-free solder alloy at high temperature

Umar Ali, Hamza Khan, Muhammad Aamir, Khaled Giasin, Numan Habib, Muhammad Owais Awan

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SAC305 lead-free solder alloy is widely used in the electronic industry. However, the problems associated with the growth formation of intermetallic compounds need further research, especially at high temperatures. This study investigates the doping of Bismuth into SAC305 in the various compositions of 1, 2, and 3 wt.%. The microstructure in terms of intermetallic compound particles and mechanical properties was examined after thermal aging at temperatures of 100 °C and 200 °C for 60 h. The microstructure examination was observed using scanning electron microscopy, and the chemical composition of each alloy was confirmed with an energy dispersive X-ray. Tensile tests were performed to find the mechanical properties such as yield strength and ultimate tensile strength. The intermetallic compound’s phase analysis was identified using X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry was done to study the temperature curves for melting points. Results showed that the addition of Bismuth refined the microstructure by suppressing the growth of intermetallic compounds, which subsequently improved the mechanical properties. The thermal aging made the microstructure coarsen and degraded the mechanical properties. However, the most improved performance was observed with a Bismuth addition of 3 wt.% into SAC305. Furthermore, a decrease in the melting temperature was observed, especially at Bismuth compositions of 3 wt.%.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1077
Pages (from-to)1-12
Number of pages12
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 5 Jul 2021


  • lead-free solder
  • bismuth
  • microstructure
  • mechanical properties
  • thermal aging


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