Analysis of noise and bias errors in intelligence information systems

Ashraf Labib*, Salem Chakhar, Lorraine Hope, John Shimell, Mark Malinowski

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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An Intelligence Information System (IIS) is a particular kind of Information Systems (IS) devoted to the analysis of intelligence relevant to national security. Professional and military intelligence analysts play a key role in this, but their judgements can be inconsistent, mainly due to noise and bias. The team-oriented aspects of the intelligence analysis process complicates the situation further. To enable analysts to achieve better judgements, the authors designed, implemented and validated an innovative IIS for analysing UK Military Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) data. The developed tool, the Team Information Decision Engine (TIDE), relies on an innovative preference learning method along with an aggregation procedure that permits combining scores by individual analysts into aggregated scores. This paper reports on a series of validation trials in which the performance of individual and team-oriented analysts was accessed with respect to their effectiveness and efficiency. Results show that the use of the developed tool enhanced the effectiveness and efficiency of intelligence analysis process at both individual and team levels.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1755-1775
Number of pages21
JournalJournal of the Association for Information Science and Technology
Issue number12
Early online date19 Aug 2022
Publication statusPublished - 11 Nov 2022


  • Intelligence analysis
  • Intelligence information system
  • Noise and bias analysis
  • Team decision making
  • Group feedback
  • Military Intelligence
  • UKRI
  • ESRC
  • ES/N009614/1


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