Anisotropic crack propagation and deformation in dentin observed by four-dimensional x-ray nano-computed tomography

Xuekun Lu, Marta Pena Fernandez, Robert Bradley, Shelley Rawson, Marie O'Brian, Benjamin Hornberger, Marty Leibowitz, Gianluca Tozzi, Philip J. Withers

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Understanding the cracking behaviour of biological composite materials is of practical importance. This paper presents the first study to track the interplay between crack initiation, microfracture and plastic deformation in three dimensions (3D) as a function of tubule and collagen fibrils arrangement in elephant dentin using in situ X-ray nano-computed tomography (nano-CT). A nano-indenter with a conical tip has been used to incrementally indent three test-pieces oriented at 0°, 45° and 70° to the long axis of the tubules (i.e. radial to the tusk). For the 0° sample two significant cracks formed, one of which linked up with microcracks in the axial-radial plane of the tusk originating from the tubules and the other one occurred as a consequence of shear deformation at the tubules. The 70° test-piece was able to bear the greatest loads despite many small cracks forming around the indenter. These were diverted by the microstructure and did not propagate significantly. The 45° test-piece showed intermediate behaviour. In all cases strains obtained by digital volume correlation were well in excess of the yield strain (0.9%), indeed some plastic deformation could even be seen through bending of the tubules. The hoop strains around the conical indenter were anisotropic with the smallest strains correlating with the primary collagen orientation (axial to the tusk) and the largest strains aligned with the hoop direction of the tusk.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)400-411
Number of pages12
JournalActa Biomaterialia
Early online date26 Jun 2019
Publication statusPublished - 15 Sept 2019


  • RCUK
  • EP/R00661X/1
  • EP/I02249X
  • EP/F007906
  • EP/F028431


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