The purification of the chloroform extract from the brown invasive macroalga Sargassum muticum, through a series of chromatographic separations, yielded 12 fractions that were tested against strains of bacteria, microalgae, and fungi involved in marine biofilm formation. The chemical composition of four (a, c, g, and k) out of the six fractions that exhibited anti-microfouling activity was investigated. Fraction a contained saturated and unsaturated linear hydrocarbons (C-12-C-27). Arachidonic acid was identified as the major metabolite in fraction c whereas fraction g contained mainly palmitic, linolenic, and palmitoleic acids. Fraction k was submitted to further purification yielding the fraction kAcaF1e that was composed of galactoglycerolipids, active against the growth of two of the four bacterial strains (Shewanella putrefaciens and Polaribacter irgensii) and all tested fungi. These promising results, in particular the isolation and the activity of galactoglycerolipids, attest the potential of the huge biomass of S. muticum as a source of new environmentally friendly antifouling compounds.