Lipoprotein metabolism plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and risk of vascular disease. Elevated levels of LDL and low levels of HDL are linked to the risk of cardiovascular disease. It is now widely accepted that oxidative modification of LDL affects the metabolism of lipoproteins, leading to their increased accumulation in arterial intima. The present paper will examine some of the accumulating evidence from studies showing relationships between dietary intake of antioxidant nutrients, i.e. vitamins E and C, the carotenoids and the flavonoids, and their influence on lipoprotein metabolism. In particular, the present paper will review the available literature on the affect of antioxidant supplementation on lipoprotein oxidation, and hence metabolism of LDL in human subjects.