Assessment of visual motor integration via hand-drawn imitation: a pilot study

Dinghuang Zhang, Baoli Lu, Jing Guo, Yu He, Honghai Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Downloads (Pure)


Copious evidence shows that impaired visual–motor integration (VMI) is intrinsically linked to the core deficits of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and associated with an anomalous social capability. Therefore, an effective evaluation method of visual–motor behaviour can provide meaningful insight into the evaluation of VMI towards social capability. The current pilot study aims to explore the appropriate quantified metrics for evaluating VMI ability based on a hand-drawn imitation protocol. First, a simple and interesting hand-drawn protocol was designed, and six healthy participants were recruited to perform the task. Then, based on the collected hand–eye behaviour data, several metrics were applied to infer the participant’s social capability and VMI in engagement and visual–motor complexity based on hand–eye properties with Hausdorff distance and cross-recurrence quantification analysis (CRQA). Finally, those quantified metrics were verified through statistical significance. This study proposed a set of quantitative metrics to construct a comprehensive VMI evaluation, including outcome and progress measures. The results revealed the proposed method as a directly interpretable indicator providing a promising computational framework and biomarker for VMI evaluation, paving the way for its future use in ASD diagnosis and guiding intervention.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2776
Number of pages13
JournalElectronics (Switzerland)
Issue number13
Publication statusPublished - 22 Jun 2023


  • CRQA
  • hand-drawn imitation
  • metrics
  • social capability
  • VMI

Cite this