Asymmetry analysis of the arm segments during forward handspring on floor

Timothy A. Exell*, Gemma Robinson, Gareth Irwin

*Corresponding author for this work

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Asymmetry in gymnastics underpins successful performance and may also have implications as an injury mechanism; therefore, understanding of this concept could be useful for coaches and clinicians. The aim of this study was to examine kinematic and external kinetic asymmetry of the arm segments during the contact phase of a fundamental skill, the forward handspring on floor. Using a repeated single subject design six female National elite gymnasts (age: 19 ± 1.5 years, mass: 58.64 ± 3.72 kg, height: 1.62 ± 0.41 m), each performed 15 forward handsprings, synchronised 3D kinematic and kinetic data were collected. Asymmetry between the lead and non-lead side arms was quantified during each trial. Significant kinetic asymmetry was observed for all gymnasts (p 

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)545-552
JournalEuropean Journal of Sport Science
Issue number5
Early online date1 Dec 2015
Publication statusPublished - 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • coaching
  • Gymnastics
  • injury
  • upper limb


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