Baade's window with APOGEE: metallicities, ages and chemical abundances

M. Schultheis, A. Rojas-Arriagada, A. E. García Pérez, H. Jönsson, M. Hayden, G. Nandakumar, K. Cunha, C. Allende Prieto, J. A. Holtzman, T. C. Beers, D. Bizyaev, J. Brinkmann, R. Carrera, R. E. Cohen, D. Geisler, F. R. Hearty, J. G. Fernández-Trincado, C. Maraston, D. Minniti, C. NitschelmA. Roman-Lopes, D. P. Schneider, B. Tang, S. Villanova, G. Zasowski, S. R. Majewski

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Baade's window (BW) is one of the most observed Galactic bulge fields in terms of chemical abundances. Due to its low and homogeneous interstellar absorption it is considered as a calibration field for Galactic bulge studies. In the era of large spectroscopic surveys, calibration fields such as BW are necessary to cross calibrate the stellar parameters and individual abundances of the APOGEE survey. We use the APOGEE BW stars to derive their metallicity distribution function (MDF) and individual abundances, for $\alpha$- and iron-peak elements of the APOGEE ASPCAP pipeline (DR13), as well as the age distribution for stars in BW. We determine the MDF of APOGEE stars in BW and find a remarkable agreement with that of the Gaia-ESO survey (GES). Both exhibit a clear bimodal distribution. We also find that the Mg-metallicity planes of both surveys agree well, except for the metal-rich part ([Fe/H] >0.1), where APOGEE finds systematically higher Mg abundances with respect to the GES. The ages based on the [C/N] ratio reveal a bimodal age distribution, with a major old population at 10 Gyr, with a decreasing tail towards younger stars. A comparison between APOGEE estimates and stellar parameters, and those determined by other sources reveals detectable systematic offsets, in particular for spectroscopic surface gravity estimates. In general, we find a good agreement between individual abundances of O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Co, and Ni from APOGEE with that of literature values. We have shown that in general APOGEE data show a good agreement in terms of MDF and individual chemical abundances with respect to literature works. Using the [C/N] ration we found a significant fraction of young stars in BW which is in agreement with the model of Haywood et al. (2016).
Original languageEnglish
Article numberA14
JournalAstronomy and Astrophysics
Early online date21 Mar 2017
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2017


  • astro-ph.GA
  • astro-ph.SR


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