Betaine distribution in Angiosperms

Gerald Blunden, Asmita Sautreau, Nigel Armstrong, M. Adrian-Romero, P. Melendez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Over 140 Angiosperm species, included in 45 of the 62 orders listed by Engler, have been investigated for the presence of betaines, which were detected in 86% of the species examined and in 43 of the orders. Moreover, betaines were reported earlier in a further seven of the orders. Thus, it can be concluded that betaines are very widely distributed in Angiosperms. The most commonly detected betaines in the study were glycinebetaine and trigonelline, although others, such as prolinebetaine, trans-4-hydroxyprolinebetaine and pipecolatebetaine were found, although with a very restricted distribution. In the large majority of species tested, betaine levels were low (below 0.1%, dry weight).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)904-920
Number of pages17
JournalBiochemical Systematics and Ecology
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2005


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