Binder migration during drying of lithium-ion battery electrodes: modelling and comparison to experiment

F. Font, B. Protas, G. Richardson, Jamie Foster

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The drying process is a crucial step in electrode manufacture that may lead to spatial inhomogeneities in the distribution of the electrode components resulting in impaired cell performance. Binder migration during the drying process, and the ensuing poor binder coverage in certain regions of the electrode, can lead to capacity fade and mechanical failure (\eg electrode delamination from the current collector). A mathematical model of electrode drying is presented which tracks the evolution of the binder distribution, and is applicable in the relatively high drying rates encountered in industrial electrode manufacture. The model predicts that constant low drying rates lead to a favourable homogeneous binder profiles, whereas constant high drying rates are unfavourable and result in accumulation of binder near the evaporation surface and depletion near the current collector. These results show strong qualitative agreement with experimental observations and provide a cogent explanation for why fast drying conditions result in poorly performing electrodes. Finally, a scheme is detailed for optimisation of a time-varying drying procedure that allows for short drying times whilst simultaneously ensuring a close to homogeneous binder distribution throughout the electrode.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)177-185
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Power Sources
Early online date12 May 2018
Publication statusPublished - 31 Jul 2018


  • Electrode drying
  • binder migration
  • mass transfer
  • lithium-ion battery


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