Blue farming potentials: sustainable ocean farming strategies in the light of climate change adaptation and mitigation

Michael Bennett, Antaya March, Pierre Failler

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Modern aquaculture technologies can contribute to both climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies while simultaneously contributing towards food security. Various aquaculture strategies have been reviewed elsewhere but omit a few key strategies worthy of inclusion. This paper reviews various regenerative aquaculture strategies that stimulate habitat creation, biodiversity and capture fisheries stimulation, and increasing resilience to climate change effects. The climate change adaptation strategies discussed include IMTA and aquaponics, recirculation systems for the control of environmental conditions in a changing climate, habitat restoration through coral aquaculture, the capacity for selective breeding as adaptation mechanism to expected environmental changes, and continuous environmental monitoring programmes. Blue farming strategies for climate change mitigation are largely focussed on greenhouse gas reduction, carbon capture and carbon sequestration. The Western hemisphere has recently been enthused by the development of seaweed aquaculture and the implications of seaweed aquaculture and seaweed products are discussed, as well as the potential of seaweed to contribute to blue carbon stocks. The potential of microalgal bloom stimulation and open-ocean fertilisation are explored as methods of intensifying natural biogeochemical cycles involved in carbon sequestration. Best aquaculture practices and certifications are also discussed as a potential mechanism to align current farms with climate change and blue carbon objectives. The review concludes that regenerative aquaculture strategies have the potential to change public perception of aquaculture as holding largely negative consequences for the environment, and encourage the development of other applications of aquaculture as novel methods of sustainable blue ocean farming.
Original languageEnglish
JournalGreen and Low-Carbon Economy
Early online date8 Oct 2023
Publication statusEarly online - 8 Oct 2023


  • adaptation
  • blue farming
  • mitigation
  • regenerative aquaculture
  • seaweed farming

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