Bone bricks: the effect of architecture and material composition on the mechanical and biological performance of bone scaffolds

Evangelos Daskalakis, Boyang Huang, Cian Vyas, Anil A. Acar, Fengyuan Liu, Ali Fallah, Glen Cooper, Andrew Weightman, Gordon Blunn, Bahattin Koç, Paulo Bartolo*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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Large bone loss injuries require high-performance scaffolds with an architecture and material composition resembling native bone. However, most bone scaffold studies focus on three-dimensional (3D) structures with simple rectangular or circular geometries and uniform pores, not able to recapitulate the geometric characteristics of the native tissue. This paper addresses this limitation by proposing novel anatomically designed scaffolds (bone bricks) with nonuniform pore dimensions (pore size gradients) designed based on new lay-dawn pattern strategies. The gradient design allows one to tailor the properties of the bricks and together with the incorporation of ceramic materials allows one to obtain structures with high mechanical properties (higher than reported in the literature for the same material composition) and improved biological characteristics.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7515-7530
Number of pages16
JournalACS Omega
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 22 Feb 2022


  • UKRI
  • EP/R01513/1
  • EP/R513131/1

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