Can axes conventions of the trunk reference frame influence breast displacement calculation during running?

Chris Mills, Amy Loveridge, Alex Milligan, Debbie Risius, Joanna Scurr

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To obtain breast motion relative to the trunk, skin markers are used to define a local coordinate system (trunk), with respect to the global reference frame. This study aimed to quantify any differences in multiplanar breast displacement relative to the trunk using the first axis of rotation as either the mediolateral or longitudinal axis. Ten female participants ran on a treadmill (10kph) in three different breast supports (no bra, everyday bra, sports bra). Four reflective markers placed on the trunk and right nipple were tracked using eight infrared cameras (200Hz) during five running gait cycles in each breast support condition. Following marker identification, right breast multiplanar displacements were calculated relative to the trunk using either the mediolateral axis or the longitudinal axis as the first rotational axis to define the orthogonal local coordinate system. Results showed that there was a significant difference (8.2%) in superioinferior breast displacement in the sports bra condition when calculated using different axes conventions for the trunk segment. Furthermore, the greatest magnitude of breast displacement occurred in a different direction depending upon the selection of the first rotational axis. The definition of the primary reference axis of the trunk significantly alters the magnitude of superioinferior breast displacement and therefore it is recommended that the previously reported 'stable' longitudinal axis should be defined as the first rotational axis during running. Caution should also be used as the axes convention influences the magnitude and direction of breast support requirements, which has important implications for bra design.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)575-578
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Biomechanics
Issue number2
Early online date1 Dec 2013
Publication statusPublished - 22 Jan 2014


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