Changes in lumbar joint moments using a female specific torso and dynamic breast model during running

Chris Mills*, Melissa Jones

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

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This study aimed to investigate the effect of breast mass and motion on lumbar flexor / extensor moments during running. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected for a female participant running at 2.6 m/s. An MRI scan was used to calculate breast mass and centre of mass location. An OpenSim model was customised with two point-mass segments added to the torso to represent the breasts. Three model variations were constructed (combined breast and torso mass; separate breast and torso mass without breast motion; separate breast and torso mass with breast motion). Findings show that neglecting breast motion causes peak lumbar extensor moments to be underestimated by ~3.4%, compared with a combined breast and torso mass model. These results highlight the importance of including breast motion in female specific MSK models, during activities such as running
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationISBS 2022
Subtitle of host publicationConference Proceedings
PublisherNorthern Michigan University
Number of pages4
Publication statusPublished - 19 Jul 2022
EventInternational Society of Biomechanics in Sports - Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom
Duration: 19 Jul 202223 Jul 2022

Publication series

NameInternational Symposium on Biomechanics in Sports
PublisherNorthern Michigan University
ISSN (Print)1999-4168


ConferenceInternational Society of Biomechanics in Sports
Abbreviated titleISBS
Country/TerritoryUnited Kingdom
Internet address


  • breast
  • OpenSim
  • mass
  • musculoskeletal


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