Concurrent sampling of transitional and coastal waters by Diffusive Gradient in Thin-films (DGT) and spot sampling for trace metals analysis

Philippe Bersuder, Isabelle Amouroux, María Jesús Belzunce-Segarra, Thi Bolam, Miguel Caetano, Inês Carvalho, Margarida Correia Dos Santos, Gary R. Fones, Jean-louis Gonzalez, Stephane Guesdon, Joana Larreta, Barbara Marras, Brendan Mchugh, Florence Menet-nédélec, Iratxe Menchaca, Vanessa Millán Gabet, Natalia Montero, Martin Nolan, Fiona Regan, Craig D. RobinsonNuno Rosa, Marta Rodrigo Sanz, José Germán Rodríguez, Marco Schintu, Blánaid White, Hao Zhang

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This protocol was developed based on the knowledge acquired in the framework of the Interreg MONITOOL project (EAPA_565/2016) where extensive sampling campaigns were performed in transitional and coastal waters covering eight European countries. It provides detailed procedures and guidelines for the sampling of these waterbodies by concurrent collection of discrete water samples and the deployment of Diffusive Gradient in Thin-films (DGT) passive samplers for the measurement of trace metal concentrations. In order to facilitate the application of this protocol by end-users, it presents steps to follow in the laboratory prior to sampling campaigns, explains the procedures for field campaigns (including in situ measurement of supporting parameters) and subsequent sample processing in the laboratory in preparation for trace metal analyze by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and voltammetry. The protocol provides a systematic, coherent field sampling and sample preparation strategy that was developed in order to ensure comparability and reproducibility of the data obtained from each project Partner in different regions.

• Standardization of the concurrent sampling of transitional and coastal waters by DGT passive samplers and spot sampling.

• Robust procedures and tips based on existing international standards and comprehensive practical experience.

• Links to demonstration videos produced within the MONITOOL project.
Original languageEnglish
Article number101462
Number of pages14
Early online date24 Jul 2021
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2021


  • Diffusive Gradient in Thin-films (DGT)
  • Passive sampling
  • Spot sampling
  • Metals
  • Transitional and coastal waters
  • Monitoring
  • EU Water Framework Directive (WFD)


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