Core-collapse Supernovae in the Dark Energy Survey: Luminosity Functions and Host Galaxy Demographics

DES Collaboration, M. Vincenzi, C. Frohmaier, O. Graur, L. Kelsey, D. Bacon

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Abstract

We present the luminosity functions and host galaxy properties of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) core-collapse supernova (CCSN) sample, consisting of 69 Type II and 50 Type Ibc spectroscopically and photometrically confirmed supernovae over a redshift range 0.045 < z < 0.25. We fit the observed DES griz CCSN light curves and K-correct to produce rest-frame R-band light curves. We compare the sample with lower redshift CCSN samples from Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) and Lick Observatory Supernova Search (LOSS). Comparing luminosity functions, the DES and ZTF samples of SNe II are brighter than that of LOSS with significances of 3.0σ and 2.5σ, respectively. While this difference could be caused by redshift evolution in the luminosity function, simpler explanations such as differing levels of host extinction remain a possibility. We find that the host galaxies of SNe II in DES are on average bluer than in ZTF, despite having consistent stellar mass distributions. We consider a number of possibilities to explain this – including galaxy evolution with redshift, selection biases in either the DES or ZTF samples, and systematic differences due to the different photometric bands available – but find that none can easily reconcile the differences in host colour between the two samples and thus its cause remains uncertain.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)684-701
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume520
Issue number1
Early online date11 Jan 2023
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2023

Keywords

  • astro-ph.HE
  • surveys
  • supernovae: general
  • UKRI
  • STFC
  • ST/P006760/1
  • ST/R000506/1

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