Cyclic deformation at elevated temperature has been modeled for a polycrystalline nickel-based superalloy using the crystal-plasticity constitutive formulations. Finite element analyses were carried out for a representative volume element (RVE), consisting of randomly oriented grains and subjected to periodic boundary constraints. Model parameters were determined by fitting the strain-controlled cyclic test data at 650 °C for three different loading rates. Simulated results are in good agreement with the experimental data for both stress–strain loops and cyclic hardening behavior. The model was utilized to predict the stress relaxation behavior during the hold periods at the maximum and minimum strain levels, and the prediction compares well with the experimental results. Localized stress and strain concentrations were observed due to the heterogeneous nature of grain microstructure and the mismatch of the mechanical properties of individual grains.