The presence of Archaea in the Great Barrier Reef marine sponge Rhopaloeides odorabile was investigated by 16S ribosomal RNA community analysis of total DNA extracted from the sponge tissue. The 16S rRNA gene sequences corresponding to group I crenarchaeotes and group II euryarchaeotes were recovered from R. odorabile tissue. The location of archaeal cells within the sponge tissue was investigated using fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide probes. The presence of Archaea was confirmed within all regions of the sponge tissue from R. odorabile, with a significantly higher number of archaeal cells located in the pinacoderm than the mesohyl region. This is the first report of euryarchaeaotes associated with marine sponges.