The presence of fibrin degradation products, thrombin-like enzyme, prothrombin fragments, thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor, plasmin and other active components of blood coagulation and fibrinolysis in seminal plasma has been reported. In the present study we investigate the presence of thrombomodulin in human semen. Using an Imubind thrombomodulin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (American Diagnostica Inc., Stamford, Connecticut, USA), seminal thrombomodulin levels were measured in 47 semen specimens obtained from subfertile individuals, normally fertile individuals, semen donors as well as vasectomized individuals, and in a further group defined by normality in several parameters derived from the World Health Organization fertility criteria. Conventional semen parameters were analysed in all semen samples. Thrombomodulin is quantifiable in human semen at a concentration lower than that normally found in citrated blood plasma samples. Slightly higher levels were seen for fertile stratifications compared with infertile individuals but without significant difference, given the numbers accrued. A vasectomized group showed the lowest value. In conclusion, our results establish the presence of hrombomodulin in human semen and suggest its production both upstream and downstream from the level of a vasectomy lesion.