Interaction processes between interviewers and interviewees are not constrained to a verbal exchange of information. There will always be an exchange of information on the basis of the nonverbal behavior displayed by the parties as well (Vrij, 1991; Vrij & Winkel, 1991). Verbal information refers to the content of the interview, nonverbal information refers to the way the spoken information is presented: the gestures that accompany speech, head movements, trunk movements, gaze aversion, smiling, variation of pitch of voice, speech rate, speech disturbances (repetions of words, omissions of words) etc. Therefore, in order to detect false statements of children three different types of detection instruments are possible: a "verbal detection instrument" (referring to the analysis of the verbal content of statements), a "nonverbal detection instrument" (referring to the analysis of nonverbal behavior displayed by children) and a "combination instrument" (referring to the analysis of both verbal and nonverbal information). Social psychological literature revealed several verbal detection instruments (Gardner, 1987; Steiler, 1989; Undeutsch, 1989; Wegener, 1989; Yuille & Cutshall, 1989), although nonverbal detection instruments and combination instruments are not available yet.
|Title of host publication||Psychology, law and criminal justice: international developments in research and practice|
|Editors||G. Davies, S. Lloyd-Bostock, M. McMurran, Clare Wilson|
|Place of Publication||Berlin|
|Publisher||Walter de Gruyter|
|Number of pages||10|
|Publication status||Published - 1996|