and fluid analyses are accomplished to investigate the influence of some parameters, such as nozzle length, pressure of input fuel, and cone angle of injector’s needle. Experimental results obtained from fabricated GDI show good agreement with the numerical results provided by the 3-D finite-element analysis. Furthermore, the fabricated GDI is controlled by fuzzy and PID controllers. It was shown that fuzzy controllers provide faster response with less accuracy compared to the PID controller. Consequently, there is a tradeoff between fast response and steady-state error for selecting the propoer controller.
- Finite-element method
- gasoline direct injector (GDI)