Do thermal agents affect range of movement and mechanical properties in soft tissues? a systematic review

Chris M. Bleakley, Joseph T. Costello

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


To examine the effect of thermal agents on the range of movement (ROM) and mechanical properties in soft tissue and to discuss their clinical relevance.

Data Sources
Electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, and EMBASE) were searched from their earliest available record up to May 2011 using Medical Subjects Headings and key words. We also undertook related articles searches and read reference lists of all incoming articles.

Study Selection
Studies involving human participants describing the effects of thermal interventions on ROM and/or mechanical properties in soft tissue. Two reviewers independently screened studies against eligibility criteria.

Data Extraction
Data were extracted independently by 2 review authors using a customized form. Methodologic quality was also assessed by 2 authors independently, using the Cochrane risk of bias tool.

Data Synthesis
Thirty-six studies, comprising a total of 1301 healthy participants, satisfied the inclusion criteria. There was a high risk of bias across all studies. Meta-analyses were not undertaken because of clinical heterogeneity; however, effect sizes were calculated. There were conflicting data on the effect of cold on joint ROM, accessory joint movement, and passive stiffness. There was limited evidence to determine whether acute cold applications enhance the effects of stretching, and further evidence is required. There was evidence that heat increases ROM, and a combination of heat and stretching is more effective than stretching alone.

Heat is an effective adjunct to developmental and therapeutic stretching techniques and should be the treatment of choice for enhancing ROM in a clinical or sporting setting. The effects of heat or ice on other important mechanical properties (eg, passive stiffness) remain equivocal and should be the focus of future study.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)149-163
JournalArchives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Issue number1
Early online date7 Aug 2012
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2013
Externally publishedYes


Dive into the research topics of 'Do thermal agents affect range of movement and mechanical properties in soft tissues? a systematic review'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this