Do White Holes exist?

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n a paper published in 1939, Albert Einstein argued that Black Holes (BHs) did not exist “in the real world”. However, recent astronomical observations indicate otherwise. Does this mean that we should also expect White Holes (WHs) to exist in the real world? In classical General Relativity (GR), a WH refers to the time reversed version of a collapsing BH solution that allows the crossing of the BH event horizon inside out. Such solution has been disputed as not possible because escaping an event horizon violates causality. Despite such objections, the Big Bang model is often understood as a WH (the reverse of a BH collapse). Does this mean that the Big Bang breaks causality? Recent measurements of cosmic acceleration indicate that our Big Bang solution is not really a WH, but a BH. Events decelerate when the expansion accelerates and this prevents the crossing of the event horizon from inside out. We present a general explanation of why this happens; the explanation resolves the above causality puzzle and indicates that such apparent WH solutions have a regular Schwarzschild BH exterior.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)194-203
Number of pages9
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 19 Apr 2023


  • cosmology
  • dark energy
  • general relativity
  • black holes

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