The Sommerodde-1 core from Bornholm, Denmark, provides a nearly continuous sedimentary archive from the Upper Ordovician through to the Wenlock Series (lower Silurian), as constrained by graptolite biostratigraphy. The cored mudstones represent a deep marine depositional setting in the foreland basin fringing Baltica and we present high-resolution data on the isotopic composition of the section's organic carbon (δ13Corg). This chemostratigraphical record is correlated with previously recognized δ13C excursions in the Upper Ordovician–lower Silurian, including the Hirnantian positive isotope carbon excursion (HICE), the early Aeronian positive carbon isotope excursion (EACIE), and the early Sheinwoodian positive carbon isotope excursion (ESCIE). A new positive excursion of high magnitude (~4‰) is discovered in the Telychian Oktavites spiralis Biozone (lower Silurian) and we name it the Sommerodde Carbon Isotope Excursion (SOCIE). The SOCIE appears discernible in δ13Ccarb data from Latvian and Estonian cores but it is not yet widely recognized. However, the magnitude of the excursion within the deep, marine, depositional setting, represented by the Sommerodde-1 core, suggests that the SOCIE reflects a significant event. In addition, the chemostratigraphical record of the Sommerodde-1 core reveals the negative excursion at the transition from the Aeronian to Telychian stages (the ‘Rumba low’), and suggests that the commencement of the EACIE at the base of the Demirastrites triangulatus Biozone potentially is a useful chemostratigraphical marker for the base of the Aeronian Stage.