Effect of including damage at the tissue level in the nonlinear homogenisation of trabecular bone

Francesc Levrero-Florencio, Krishna Manda, Lee Margetts, Pankaj Pankaj

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    Being able to predict bone fracture or implant stability needs a proper constitutive model of trabecular bone at the macroscale in multiaxial, non-monotonic loading modes. Its macroscopic damage behaviour has been investigated experimentally in the past, mostly with the restriction of uniaxial cyclic loading experiments for different samples, which does not allow for the investigation of several load cases in the same sample as damage in one direction may affect the behaviour in other directions. Homogenised finite element models of whole bones have the potential to assess complicated scenarios and thus improve clinical predictions. The aim of this study is to use a homogenisation-based multiscale procedure to upscale the damage behaviour of bone from an assumed solid phase constitutive law and investigate its multiaxial behaviour for the first time. Twelve cubic specimens were each submitted to nine proportional strain histories by using a parallel code developed in-house. Evolution of post-elastic properties for trabecular bone was assessed for a small range of macroscopic plastic strains in these nine load cases. Damage evolution was found to be non-isotropic, and both damage and hardening were found to depend on the loading mode (tensile, compression or shear); both were characterised by linear laws with relatively high coefficients of determination. It is expected that the knowledge of the macroscopic behaviour of trabecular bone gained in this study will help in creating more precise continuum FE models of whole bones that improve clinical predictions.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1-15
    Number of pages16
    JournalBiomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
    Early online date12 May 2017
    Publication statusEarly online - 12 May 2017


    • trabecular bone
    • multiscale modelling
    • plasticity
    • damage
    • finite element method
    • RCUK
    • EPSRC
    • EP/K036939/1


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