Effects of dietary nitrate supplementation on the response to extremity cooling and endothelial function in individuals with cold sensitivity. A double blind, placebo controlled, crossover, randomised control trial

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Abstract

Individuals with cold sensitivity have low peripheral skin blood flow and skin temperature possibly due to reduced nitric oxide (NO•) bioavailability. Beetroot has a high concentration of inorganic nitrate and may increase NO-mediated vasodilation. Using a placebo-controlled, double blind, randomised, crossover design, this study tested the hypotheses that acute beetroot supplementation would increase the rate of cutaneous rewarming following a local cold challenge and augment endothelium-dependent vasodilation in cold sensitive individuals.

Thirteen cold sensitive participants completed foot and hand cooling (separately, in 15 °C water for 2 min) with spontaneous rewarming in 30 °C air whilst skin temperature and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) were measured (Baseline). On two further separate visits, participants consumed 140 ml of either concentrated beetroot juice (nitrate supplementation) or nitrate-depleted beetroot juice (Placebo) 90 min before resting seated blood pressure was measured. Endothelial function was assessed by measuring CVC at the forearm, finger and foot during iontophoresis of 1% w/v acetylcholine followed by foot and hand cooling as for Baseline.

Plasma nitrite concentrations significantly increased in nitrate supplementation compared to Placebo and Baseline (502 ± 246 nmol L−1; 73 ± 45 nmol L−1; 74 ± 49 nmol L−1 respectively; n = 11; P < 0.001). Resting blood pressure and the response to foot and hand cooling did not differ between conditions (all P > 0.05). Nitrate supplementation did not alter endothelial function in the forearm, finger or foot (all P > 0.05) compared to Placebo.

Despite a physiologically meaningful rise in plasma nitrite concentrations, acute nitrate supplementation does not alter extremity rewarming, endothelial function or blood pressure in individuals with cold sensitivity.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)76-85
Number of pages10
JournalNitric Oxide
Volume70
Early online date20 Sep 2017
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2017

Keywords

  • nitrate
  • nitric oxide
  • microvascular
  • beetroot
  • non-freezing cold injury

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