Elucidating the effect of step cooling heat treatment on the properties of 2.25 Cr–1.0 Mo steel welded with a combination of GMAW techniques incorporating metal-cored wires

Subhash Das, Jay Vora, Vivek Patel, Joel Anderrson, Danil Yurievich Pimenov, Khaled Giasin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The prospect of using metal-cored wires instead of solid wires during gas metal arc welding (GMAW) of 2.25 Cr–1.0 Mo steels embraces several challenges. The in-service requirements for the equipment made up of these steels are stringent. The major challenge faced by the manufacturers is temper embrittlement. In the current study, the temper embrittlement susceptibility of the welded joint was ascertained by subjecting it to step cooling heat treatment. A 25 mm thick 2.25 Cr–1.0 Mo weld joint was prepared using a combination of the regulated metal deposition (RMD) and GMAW processes incorporating metal-cored wires. After welding the plates were exposed to post-weld heat treatment followed by a rigorous step cooling heat treatment prescribed by API standards. The temper embrittlement susceptibility of the weld joint was ascertained by Bruscato X-factor as well as by formulating ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) curves by carrying out the impact toughness testing at various temperatures. Detailed microscopy and hardness studies were also carried out. It was established from the study that the X-factor value for the welded joint was 15.4. The DBTT for the weld joint was found to occur at −37 °C which was well below 10 °C. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy indicated the presence of carbides and the energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry studies indicated the presence of chromium and manganese-rich carbides along with the presence of sulfur near the grain boundaries. This study establishes a base for the usage of metal-cored wires particularly in high temperature and pressure application of Cr–Mo steels.
Original languageEnglish
Article number6033
Number of pages15
JournalMaterials
Volume14
Issue number20
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 13 Oct 2021

Keywords

  • ductile-to-brittle transition temperatures (DBTT)
  • gas metal arc welding process (GMAW)
  • metal-cored
  • regulated metal deposition (RMD)
  • step cooling heat treatment (SCHT)
  • temperature embrittlement
  • welding

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