Enhancing endoscopic measurement: validating a quantitative method for polyp size and location estimation in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy

Nazanin Safavian, Simon K.C. Toh, Martino Pani, Raymond Lee*

*Corresponding author for this work

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Background: Accurate measurement of polyps size is crucial in predicting malignancy, planning relevant intervention strategies and surveillance schedules. Endoscopists’ visual estimations can lack precision. This study builds on our prior research, with the aim to evaluate a recently developed quantitative method to measure the polyp size and location accurately during a simulated endoscopy session. 

Methods: The quantitative method merges information about endoscopic positions obtained from an electromagnetic tracking sensor, with corresponding points on the images of the segmented polyp border. This yields real-scale 3D coordinates of the border of the polyp. By utilising the sensor, positions of any anatomical landmarks are attainable, enabling the estimation of a polyp’s location relative to them. To verify the method’s reliability and accuracy, simulated endoscopies were conducted in pig stomachs, where polyps were artificially created and assessed in a test–retest manner. The polyp measurements were subsequently compared against clipper measurements. 

Results: The average size of the fifteen polyps evaluated was approximately 12 ± 4.3 mm, ranging from 5 to 20 mm. The test–retest reliability, measured by the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) for polyp size estimation, demonstrated an absolute agreement of 0.991 (95% CI 0.973–0.997, p < 0.05). Bland & Altman analysis revealed a mean estimation difference of − 0.17 mm (− 2.03%) for polyp size and, a mean difference of − 0.4 mm (− 0.21%) for polyp location. Both differences were statistically non-significant (p > 0.05). When comparing the proposed method with calliper measurements, the Bland & Altman plots showed 95% of size estimation differences between − 1.4 and 1.8 mm (− 13 to 17.4%) which was not significant (p > 0.05). 

Conclusions: The proposed method of measurements of polyp size and location was found to be highly accurate, offering great potential for clinical implementation to improve polyp assessment. This level of performance represents a notable improvement over visual estimation technique used in clinical practice.

Original languageEnglish
JournalSurgical Endoscopy
Early online date11 Mar 2024
Publication statusEarly online - 11 Mar 2024


  • Electromagnetic tracking system
  • Endoscopy
  • Polyp
  • Size estimation

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