Estimation of the information contained in the visible matter of the universe

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The information capacity of the universe has been a topic of great debate since 1970s, and continues to stimulate multiple branches of physics research. Here we used Shannon’s information theory to estimate the amount of encoded information in all the visible matter in the universe. We achieved this by deriving a detailed formula estimating the total number of particles in the observable universe, known as the Eddington number, and by estimating the amount of information stored by each particle about itself. We determined that each particle in the observable universe contains 1.509 bits of information and there are ~ 6 × 1080 bits of information stored in all the matter particles of the observable universe.
Original languageEnglish
Article number105317
Pages (from-to)1-5
Number of pages5
JournalAIP Advances
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 19 Oct 2021


  • information theory
  • Information in the universe
  • elementary particles
  • Eddington number


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