The Euclid mission will conduct an extragalactic survey over 15000 deg$^2$ of the extragalactic sky. The spectroscopic channel of the Near-Infrared Spectrometer and Photometer (NISP) has a resolution of $R\sim450$ for its blue and red grisms that collectively cover the $0.93$--$1.89 $\micron;range. NISP will obtain spectroscopic redshifts for $3\times10^7$ galaxies for the experiments on galaxy clustering, baryonic acoustic oscillations, and redshift space distortion. The wavelength calibration must be accurate within $5$\AA to avoid systematics in the redshifts and downstream cosmological parameters. The NISP pre-flight dispersion laws for the grisms were obtained on the ground using a Fabry-Perot etalon. Launch vibrations, zero gravity conditions, and thermal stabilisation may alter these dispersion laws, requiring an in-flight recalibration. To this end, we use the emission lines in the spectra of compact planetary nebulae (PNe), which were selected from a PN data base. To ensure completeness of the PN sample, we developed a novel technique to identify compact and strong line emitters in Gaia spectroscopic data using the Gaia spectra shape coefficients. We obtained VLT/X-SHOOTER spectra from $0.3$ to $2.5$ \micron;for 19 PNe in excellent seeing conditions and a wide slit, mimicking Euclid's slitless spectroscopy mode but with 10 times higher spectral resolution. Additional observations of one northern PN were obtained in the $0.80$--$1.90$ \micron range with the GMOS and GNIRS instruments at the Gemini North observatory. The collected spectra were combined into an atlas of heliocentric vacuum wavelengths with a joint statistical and systematic accuracy of 0.1 \AA in the optical and 0.3 \AA in the near-infrared. The wavelength atlas and the related 1D and 2D spectra are made publicly available.
|Journal||Astronomy and Astrophysics|
|Publication status||Accepted for publication - 27 Mar 2023|
- Instrumentation: spectrographs
- Space vehicles: instruments
- planetary nebulae: general