Evaluation of quasi-static indentation response of superelastic shape memory alloy embedded GFRP laminates using AE monitoring

Luv Verma, J. Jefferson Andrew, Srinivasan M. Sivakumar, G. Balaganesan, S. Vedantam, Hom N. Dhakal*

*Corresponding author for this work

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In this paper, the potential of superelastic shape memory alloy (SE-SMA) wire embedded architectures to increase the quasi-static indentation properties of a laminated glass/epoxy composite material was evaluated. Three types of SE-SMA configurations namely straight independent, meshed and anchored wires were embedded in the glass/epoxy composite laminates via a vacuum bag resin infusion technique. Throughout this investigation, the changes in the quasi-static indentation behavior and allied damage mechanisms due to these embedments were compared with the homogenous glass/epoxy laminates. Real time acoustic emission (AE) monitoring technique was employed to characterize the damage profile of the different glass/epoxy specimens during the quasi-static indentation tests. The experimental results showed that SE-SMA embedments play a vital role in increasing the penetration resistance by enhancing redistribution of the indentation load all across the laminates. In particular, the meshed specimens restricted penetration of an indenter and delayed the critical fiber fracture unlike homogeneous and straight wired ones, whereas the anchored specimens further restricted extensive SMA/matrix pull-out, unlike meshed ones and provided the most excellent balance among rigidity, rear face fiber breakage, and SMA/matrix pull-out. Straight, meshed and anchored SE-SMA wires increased the load-carrying capacity approximately by 31%, 79%, and 100%, respectively, in comparison to the homogeneous ones.

Original languageEnglish
Article number106942
Number of pages11
JournalPolymer Testing
Early online date7 Nov 2020
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2021


  • Acoustic emission (AE) monitoring
  • Damage mechanisms
  • GFRP
  • Glass/epoxy composite materials
  • Quasi-static indentation
  • Superelastic shape memory alloy (SE-SMA) wires


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