TY - JOUR

T1 - Finding origins of CMB anomalies in the inflationary quantum fluctuations

AU - Gaztañaga, Enrique

AU - Kumar, Sravan

N1 - Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 The Author(s)

PY - 2024/6/5

Y1 - 2024/6/5

N2 - In this paper, we present compelling evidence for the parity asymmetry (a discrete symmetry separate from isotropy) in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) map, measured through two-point temperature correlations. Any asymmetry associated with discrete symmetries, such as parity, challenges our understanding of quantum physics associated with primordial physics rather than LCDM (Λ Cold-Dark-Matter) itself. We commence by conducting a comprehensive analysis of the Planck CMB, focusing on the distribution of power in low-multipoles and temperature anticorrelations at parity conjugate points in position space. We find tension with the near scale-invariant power-law power spectrum of Standard Inflation (SI), with p-values of the order O(10-4 - 10-3). Alternatively, we explore the framework of direct-sum inflation (DSI), where a quantum fluctuation arises as a direct sum of two components evolving forward and backward in time at parity conjugate points in physical space. This mechanism results in a parity-asymmetric scale-dependent power spectrum, particularly prominent at low-multipoles, without any additional free model parameters. Our findings indicate that DSI is consistent with data on parity asymmetry, the absence of power at θ > 60°, and power suppression at low-even-multipoles which are major data anomalies in the SI model. Furthermore, we discover that the parameters characterizing the hemispherical power asymmetry anomaly become statistically insignificant when the large SI quadrupole amplitude is reduced to align with the data. DSI explains this low quadrupole with a p-value of 3.5%, 39 times higher than SI. Combining statistics from parameters measuring parity and low-ℓ angular power spectrum, we find that DSI is 50-650 times more probable than SI. In summary, our investigation suggests that while CMB temperature fluctuations exhibit homogeneity and isotropy, they also display parity-asymmetric behavior consistent with predictions of DSI. This observation provides a tantalizing evidence for the quantum mechanical nature of gravity.

AB - In this paper, we present compelling evidence for the parity asymmetry (a discrete symmetry separate from isotropy) in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) map, measured through two-point temperature correlations. Any asymmetry associated with discrete symmetries, such as parity, challenges our understanding of quantum physics associated with primordial physics rather than LCDM (Λ Cold-Dark-Matter) itself. We commence by conducting a comprehensive analysis of the Planck CMB, focusing on the distribution of power in low-multipoles and temperature anticorrelations at parity conjugate points in position space. We find tension with the near scale-invariant power-law power spectrum of Standard Inflation (SI), with p-values of the order O(10-4 - 10-3). Alternatively, we explore the framework of direct-sum inflation (DSI), where a quantum fluctuation arises as a direct sum of two components evolving forward and backward in time at parity conjugate points in physical space. This mechanism results in a parity-asymmetric scale-dependent power spectrum, particularly prominent at low-multipoles, without any additional free model parameters. Our findings indicate that DSI is consistent with data on parity asymmetry, the absence of power at θ > 60°, and power suppression at low-even-multipoles which are major data anomalies in the SI model. Furthermore, we discover that the parameters characterizing the hemispherical power asymmetry anomaly become statistically insignificant when the large SI quadrupole amplitude is reduced to align with the data. DSI explains this low quadrupole with a p-value of 3.5%, 39 times higher than SI. Combining statistics from parameters measuring parity and low-ℓ angular power spectrum, we find that DSI is 50-650 times more probable than SI. In summary, our investigation suggests that while CMB temperature fluctuations exhibit homogeneity and isotropy, they also display parity-asymmetric behavior consistent with predictions of DSI. This observation provides a tantalizing evidence for the quantum mechanical nature of gravity.

KW - cosmological parameters from CMBR

KW - Inflation and CMBR theory

KW - quantum field theory on curved space

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85195684930&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1088/1475-7516/2024/06/001

DO - 10.1088/1475-7516/2024/06/001

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85195684930

SN - 1475-7516

VL - 2024

JO - Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics

JF - Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics

IS - 6

M1 - 001

ER -