Surgical treatment for disc degeneration can be roughly grouped as fusion, disc replacement and dynamic stabilization. The clinical efficacy and biomechanical features of the implants used for disc degenerations can be evaluated through short- or long-term follow up observation, in vitro and in vivo experiments and computational simulations. Finite element models are already making an important contribution to our understanding of the spine and its components. Models are being used to reveal the biomechanical function of the spine and its behavior when healthy, diseased or damaged. They are also providing support in the design and application of spinal instrumentation. The article reviewed the most recent studies in the application of FE models that address the issue of implant research for treatment of low back pain. The published studies were grouped and reviewed thoroughly based on the function of implants investigated. The considerations of the finite element analysis in these studies were further discussed.