Flexural strength of CAD/CAM lithium-based silicate glass–ceramics: a narrative review

Alvaro Munoz, Zejiao Zhao, Gaetano Paolone, Chris Louca, Alessandro Vichi

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Amongst chairside CAD/CAM materials, the use of lithium-based silicate glass–ceramics (LSGC) for indirect restorations has recently been increasing. Flexural strength is one of the most important parameters to consider in the clinical selection of materials. The aim of this paper is to review the flexural strength of LSGC and the methods used to measure it. Methods: The electronic search was completed within PubMed database from 2 June 2011 to 2 June 2022. English-language papers investigating the flexural strength of IPS e.max CAD, Celtra Duo, Suprinity PC, and n!ce CAD/CAM blocks were included in the search strategy. Results: From 211 potential articles, a total of 26 were identified for a comprehensive analysis. Categorization per material was carried out as follows: IPS e.max CAD (n = 27), Suprinity PC (n = 8), Celtra Duo (n = 6), and n!ce (n = 1). The three-point bending test (3-PBT) was used in 18 articles, followed by biaxial flexural test (BFT) in 10 articles, with one of these using the four-point bending test (4-PBT) as well. The most common specimen dimension was 14 × 4 × 1.2 mm (plates) for the 3-PBT and 12 × 1.2 mm (discs) for BFT. The flexural strength values for LSGC materials varied widely between the studies. Significance: As new LSGC materials are launched on the market, clinicians need to be aware of their flexural strength differences, which could influence the clinical performance of restorations.
Original languageEnglish
Article number4398
Number of pages12
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jun 2023


  • lithium silicate
  • lithium disilicate
  • ceramics
  • flexural strength

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