From Industry 4.0 towards Industry 5.0: a review and analysis of paradigm shift for the people, organization and technology

Marina Crnjac Zizic, Marko Mladineo, Nikola Gjeldum, Luka Celent

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The industry is a key driver of economic development. However, changes caused by introduction of modern technologies, and increasing complexity of products and production, directly affect the industrial enterprises and workers. The critics of the Industry 4.0 paradigm emphasized its orientation to new technologies and digitalization in a technocratic way. Therefore, the new industrial paradigm Industry 5.0 appeared very soon and automatically triggered a debate about the role of, and reasons for applying, the new paradigm. Industry 5.0 is complementing the existing Industry 4.0 paradigm with the orientation to the worker who has an important role in the production process, and that role has been emphasized during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this research, there is a brief discussion on main drivers and enablers for introduction of these new paradigms, then a literature based analysis is carried out to highlight the differences between two paradigms from three important aspects—people, organization, and technology. The conclusion emphasizes the main features and concerns regarding the movement towards Industry 5.0, and the general conclusion is that there is a significant change of the main research aims from sustainability towards human-centricity. At the end, the analysis of maturity models that evaluates enterprises’ readiness to introduce features of new paradigms is given as well.
Original languageEnglish
Article number5221
Number of pages20
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - 19 Jul 2022


  • Industry 4.0
  • Industry 5.0
  • people
  • Operator 5.0
  • organization
  • technology
  • COVID-19


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