From puzzle to progress: how engaging with neurodiversity can improve cognitive science

Marie A. R. Manalili, Amy Pearson, Justin Sulik, Louise Creechan, Mahmoud Elsherif, Inika Murkumbi, Flavio Azevedo, Kathryn L. Bonnen, Judy S. Kim, Konrad Kording, Julie J. Lee, Manifold Obscura, Steven K. Kapp, Jan P. Röer, Talia Morstead

Research output: Contribution to journalLetterpeer-review

25 Downloads (Pure)


In cognitive science, there is a tacit norm that phenomena such as cultural variation or synaesthesia are worthy examples of cognitive diversity that contribute to a better understanding of cognition, but that other forms of cognitive diversity (e.g., autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder/ADHD, and dyslexia) are primarily interesting only as examples of deficit, dysfunction, or impairment. This status quo is dehumanizing and holds back much-needed research. In contrast, the neurodiversity paradigm argues that such experiences are not necessarily deficits but rather are natural reflections of biodiversity. Here, we propose that neurodiversity is an important topic for future research in cognitive science. We discuss why cognitive science has thus far failed to engage with neurodiversity, why this gap presents both ethical and scientific challenges for the field, and, crucially, why cognitive science will produce better theories of human cognition if the field engages with neurodiversity in the same way that it values other forms of cognitive diversity. Doing so will not only empower marginalized researchers but will also present an opportunity for cognitive science to benefit from the unique contributions of neurodivergent researchers and communities.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere13255
Number of pages11
JournalCognitive Science
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 20 Feb 2023


  • cognitive dicersity
  • neurodiversity
  • norms
  • social cognition
  • epistemic justice
  • scientific discovery

Cite this