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Osteoregenerative biomaterials for the treatment of bone defects are under much development, with the aim of favouring osteointegration up to complete bone regeneration. A detailed investigation of bone-biomaterial integration is vital to understanding and predicting the ability of such materials to promote bone formation, preventing further bone damage and supporting load-bearing regions. This study aims to characterise the ex vivo micromechanics and microdamage evolution of bone-biomaterial systems at the tissue level, combining high resolution synchrotron micro-computed tomography, in situ mechanics and digital volume correlation. Results showed that the main microfailure events were localised close to or within the newly formed bone tissue, in proximity to the bone-biomaterial interface. The apparent nominal compressive load applied to the composite structures resulted in a complex loading scenario, mainly due to the higher heterogeneity but also to the different biomaterial degradation mechanisms. The full-field strain distribution allowed characterisation of microdamage initiation and progression. The findings reported in this study provide a deeper insight into bone-biomaterial integration and micromechanics in relation to the osteoregeneration achieved in vivo, for a variety of biomaterials. This could ultimately be used to improve bone tissue regeneration strategies.