Galaxy bias and gauges at second order in general relativity

Daniele Bertacca, Nicola Bartolo, Marco Bruni, Kazuya Koyama*, Roy Maartens, Sabino Matarrese, Misao Sasaki, David Wands

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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We discuss the question of gauge choice when analysing relativistic density perturbations at second order. We compare Newtonian and general relativistic approaches. Some misconceptions in the recent literature are addressed. We show that the comoving-synchronous gauge is the unique gauge in general relativity that corresponds to the Lagrangian frame and is entirely appropriate to describe the matter overdensity at second order. The comoving-synchronous gauge is the simplest gauge in which to describe Lagrangian bias at second order.

Original languageEnglish
Article number175019
Pages (from-to)175019
JournalClassical and Quantum Gravity
Issue number17
Early online date19 Aug 2015
Publication statusPublished - 10 Sept 2015


  • cosmological perturbation
  • general relativity
  • large scale structure
  • RCUK
  • STFC
  • ST/K00090X/1 and ST/L005573/1


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