Goal programming duality revisited: formulation of a set of variant duals

John Merchant, Dylan Jones

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The formulation of the duals of the original goal programming variants took place
in the decades following its introduction, principally for computational purposes.
However the development of more recent Goal Programming variants has not been
matched by the formulation and analysis of their associated duals. This paper furthers the topic of goal programming duality by formulating the duals of a progressive sequence of up to the most recent Goal Programming models: Weighted, Chebyshev, Extended and Extended Network Goal Programming models. It interprets the results and shows the insights that the duals can provide, principally by providing an understanding of the interactions between the multiple objectives in each case. The paper concludes with a comparison of the results and shows how the sequence of duals mirrors the sequence of the associated primals.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of the Operational Research Society
Publication statusAccepted for publication - 1 Nov 2022


  • Goal programming
  • Duality
  • Multiple criteria decision making


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