The primary aims of this paper were to examine the effect of heat stress on working memory, choice reaction time and mood state, and to investigate the relationship between heat induced changes in plasma concentrations of selected neurotransmitters and hormones, and cognition. Heat stress resulted in a deterioration of performance on a central executive task (random movement generation) but not on verbal and spatial recall, and choice reaction time tasks. Perceptions of vigour decreased and fatigue increased following exposure to heat stress. Plasma concentrations of cortisol and 5-hydroxytryptamine significantly increased following exposure to heat. Regression analyses showed that percent body mass loss and change from baseline (Δ) concentrations of cortisol, post-exposure to heat, were significant predictors of Δ random movement generation and Δ fatigue. A secondary purpose was to examine the effect of recovery on cognition and mood. Following recovery, the performance of the central executive task was poorer than pre-treatment. Mood states, catecholamines and 5-hydroxytryptamine concentrations returned to pre-treatment values, but cortisol fell to a level significantly lower. Regression correlations showed that Δ adrenaline and Δ scores, post-recovery, on the central executive task were significantly correlated. Δ noradrenaline correlated significantly with Δ fatigue. It was concluded that heat stress results in deterioration in the performance of central executive tasks and perceptions of mood state, and that this can be predicted by changes in body mass loss and plasma concentrations of the hormones cortisol and adrenaline.