The viability of single and coaxial electrospray techniques to encapsulate model peptide—angiotensin II into near mono-dispersed spherical, nanocarriers comprising N-octyl-O-sulphate chitosan and tristearin, respectively, was explored. The stability of peptide under controlled electric fields (during particle generation) was evaluated. Resulting nanocarriers were analysed using dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy. Cell toxicity assays were used to determine optimal peptide loading concentration (~1 mg/ml). A trout model was used to assess particle behaviour in vivo. A processing limit of 20 kV was determined. A range of electrosprayed nanoparticles were formed (between 100 and 300 nm) and these demonstrated encapsulation efficiencies of ~92 ± 1.8 %. For the single needle process, particles were in matrix form and for the coaxial format particles demonstrated a clear core–shell encapsulation of peptide. The outcomes of in vitro experiments demonstrated triphasic activity. This included an initial slow activity period, followed by a rapid and finally a conventional diffusive phase. This was in contrast to results from in vivo cardiovascular activity in the trout model. The results are indicative of the substantial potential for single/coaxial electrospray techniques. The results also clearly indicate the need to investigate both in vitro and in vivo models for emerging drug delivery systems.
|Journal||Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine|
|Early online date||8 Oct 2015|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Nov 2015|